Causes of infant mortality in Jordan
Sami A. Khoury, Diana F. Mas`ad
Saudi Medical Journal 2002; Vol. 23 (4): 432-435
Objectives: Jordan lacks accurate information on mortality and related indicators. Reporting of infant deaths is defective. Infant mortality rate based on registered deaths was 6/1000 live births, while estimates of this rate based on indirect methods varied between 29-70/1000 live births. Causes of death in general are grossly misrepresented in death certificates. The objective of this paper is to explore, in-depth, causes of infant mortality and related indicators.
Methods: An assessment of causes of death by verbal autopsy was carried out at the Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. This was applied between November 1995 through to October 1996, to a random sample of 200,000 persons living in 100 clusters representing the population and all geographic areas of Jordan. The verbal autopsy instrument was based on algorithms and filter questions to determine the underlying cause of death. In this sample there were 6028 infants among them 129 deaths were identified. Infant deaths were analyzed according to rates and causes of death were classified according to International Classification of Diseases (10th revision).
Results: Age-specific death rate was 21.4/1000 infants and gender specific death rates were 22.6/1000 male infants for males and 20.1/1000 female infants for females. The 3 leading causes of infant death were conditions originating in the perinatal period, congenital malformations and diseases of the respiratory system. The leading cause of death in the neonatal period was conditions originating in the perinatal period, while in the post-neonatal period, it was congenital malformations. Prematurity was the leading contributory cause of infant death.
Conclusions: This study showed that causes of infant mortality in Jordan tend to be similar to those prevailing in developed countries.
Self-medication with antibiotics in jordanian population.
Al-Azzam SI, Al-Husein BA, Alzoubi F, Masadeh MM, Al-Horani MA.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007;20(4):373-80.Click here to read
Objectives: A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in Jordan and evaluate the factors associated with antibiotic misuse. Methods: Validated questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 1943 households (9281 persons) selected from among different cities in Jordan. Results: 842 (39.5%) of 2133 antibiotic users identified via the survey had used antibiotics without a prescription within a one-month study period. Self-medication with antibiotics was found to be significantly associated with age, income, and level of education. The main reason for self-medication as reported by the participants was their previous experience on the efficacy of treatment. The main sources of antibiotics were the previously prescribed pharmaceuticals stored in the household and those purchased in pharmacies. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in Jordan is alarmingly high. Given the growing global resistance to antibiotics and the documented health problems related to their inappropriate use, our findings may have major public health policy implications in Jordan.
Jordanian nurses perception of physicians' verbal abuse: findings from a questionnaire survey
Arwa Oweis, Khaldoun Mousa Diabat
Int J Nurs Stud. 2005 Nov ;42 (8):881-8
The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe the frequency, severity, emotional reactions, and coping behavior of Jordanian nurses working in hospitals in response to verbal abuse. A convenience sample of 138 nurses employed in five hospitals was surveyed using the verbal abuse questionnaire (VAQ), which was developed for this study and received limited testing for reliability (homogeneity) and validity. This instrument measured different aspects of verbal abuse against Jordanian nurses. Findings indicate that the most frequent and most severe forms of verbal abuse reported were judging and criticizing, accusing and blaming, and abusive anger; the most common emotional reactions were anger, followed by shame, humiliation and frustration and most nurses used engaging in negative activities to cope with verbal abuse. Findings of this study highlights the need for hospitals to develop protocols for reporting and dealing with verbal abuse from physicians toward nurses.
Incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Jordanian children aged 0-14 y during 1992-1996
Ajlouni K, Qusous Y, Khawaldeh AK, Jaddou H, Batiehah A, Ammari F, Zaheri M, Mashal A.
Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1999 Jan;88(427):11-3.
An attempt was made by the Jordanian National Center for Diabetes, Endocrine and Genetic Diseases (NCDEGD) to identify all cases of type 1 diabetes among Jordanian children aged 0-14 y. Data were obtained retrospectively for the years 1992-1994 and prospectively for the years 1995 and 1996, including full name, national identifying number, date of birth, date of diagnosis and family history. The incidence was calculated as the number of cases per 100,000 population, according to the national census of 1994. The incidence rate for these years (1992 through 1996) was 2.8, 2.9, 3.2, 3.6 and 3.6 per 100,000 population, respectively. The male:female ratio was (1:1.03). Seasonal variation at clinical onset was noticed, with maximum incidence in the winter months and minimum incidence in the summer months. In conclusion, the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Jordanian children aged 0-14 y is among the lowest in the region, but is rising.